The Civil War

The Salvadorian civil war took place between 1980 and 1992; it was fought by the right wing of
the military government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN).About 75,000 people were killed.

The FMLN began in 1960s when the reformers challenge alliances of the right wind of militaries because of presidential elections were fraudulent in 1972 and 1977, resulted in }general Carlos Humberto Romero becoming a President, people protested the results in the streets and were fired upon, leaving as many a fifty protesters dead. In October a “Law for the Defense and Guarantee of Public Order” were created, which eliminated almost all legal restrictions on violence against civilians. Between 1977 and 1980, eleven priests were murdered and many more beaten, torture and exiled. Leftist political groups organized hugged demonstrations demanding fair elections and improved social conditions but the government fought back violently to keep power.
On 15th October 1979, the civil military Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno JIG, the oppose right to win president General Carlos Humberto Romero inspired and wanted the world to see El Salvador, modern to civilized.
In 1980 José Napoleon Duarte, the Christian Democratic Party PDC leader joined the JIG.
The city of San Salvador, the thought of extreme right which were someone well trained from Cuba or Nicaragua terrorism kill left leaders while as the countryside some forces of the army terrorized the villagers . These senior officers thought or seemed to think there were eliminated by guerrillas.

On 24 of March in 1980, the archbishop Oscar Romero was shot during a mass, a month after publicly asking the US government to stop the military aid to the Salvadorian government. At Oscar Romero funeral, forty two mourners were massacred.


It was now that the guerrilla war would take off as a significant challenge to the government. The guerrillas were a coalition called the Marti Front for National Liberation (FMNL).
In December 1980, four churchwomen from the United Stated were murdered, which disappointed President Carter stopping the military aid to El Salvador.

The FMLN started a big attack on January 10, 1981, expecting to take the power, Ronald Reagan had just taken the presidency, and their attack surprised the government but failed.
On September 1981, President Duarte announced that elections for a Constituent Assembly would be held in March 1982, in the election for this Assembly, an feeling of violence stayed and a political party, ARENA, beginning and leading by Roberto D´Aubuisson.

The FMLN wanted to be part of the democratic process and was demanding for a negotiation.

The Congress voted in January 1982 to need certification by the Reagan administration of El Salvador’s progress in cutting abuses by the military and the realization of economic and political reforms, every six months. Oppositely, the Reagan administration accepted the certification requirement and proceeded with its plan of a military increase against the FMLN, while pushing El Salvador’s government and its security forces to end the death activity.

The war in El Salvador increased in intensity, government forces there now using helicopters gun ships extensively, and punishing communities aggressively to the government forces by bombing.
In 1984 José Napoleon Duarte won the presidential elections. The fighting lasted until 1986. Abuses against the people continued, while Duarte was negotiating with FMLN.
By 1988, FMLN leaders believed that international support for
their cause was disappearing.





In January 1989 Reagan left the presidency and a new administration of George Bush Sr., this Administration joined with other American countries for negotiation the end of the war in El Salvador.


In March 1989, a member of ARENA party, Alfredo Cristiany, was elected President of El Salvador; he was also on favor to end the war.



On November 9th, 1989, FMLN launched a military attack, attacking military centers in most principal cities. The military bombed many neighborhoods, where the FMLN was believed supporting.

On November 15th four priests from the University José Simeon Cañas were murdered including their housekeeper and her daughter.
The FMLN offensive was unsuccessful to set a popular insurrection, In January, President Cristiani ordered the detention of military men accused of the murders of the Jesuit priests.



In February, 1990 it was decided that there would be a new civilian police force that would be formed by some people of the FMLN they would now also be a political party
In the country democratic process. The accords ending the civil war in El Salvador were signed in Mexico City 1992.


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